An Overview of GSM Frequency Bands
GSM frequencies can be defined as the sets of GSM frequency bands ranges within the ultrahigh-frequency band that have been allocated for cellular-compatible phones, including mobile phones that can be connected to cellular networks. There are several mobile networks throughout the world that use portions of the radio frequency spectrum, allocated to the mobile service, for the transmission as well as the reception of their signals. Such bands can be shared with other radio communication services, including broadcasting service, and fixed service operation.
Radio frequencies used for GSM networks differ in ITU regions, including Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The first commercial standard for cellular connection in the US was AMPS that was in the 800 MHz frequency band. In Europe, the first widespread automatic mobile network was based on the NMT-450 standard that was in the 450 MHz band. As you know that cell phones become popular day by day and they are available at affordable prices, service providers encountered an issue because they could not provide service to the increasing number of customers.
Hence, they had to develop their existing networks and introduce new standards depending on other frequencies. Some of the European Countries adopted TACS operating in 900 MHz. The GSM standard appeared in Europe by replacing NMT-450 and other standards. It uses the 900 MHz band too. With the increment in demand, carries acquired licenses in the 1800 MHz band. If we talk generally, lower frequencies help carries to provide coverage over a larger area, whereas higher frequencies provide service to more customers in a smaller area.
Talking about the United States, the analog AMPS standard that used the cellular band was replaced by various digital systems. At the initial level, systems based upon the AMPS mobile phone model were famous that include IS-95 and IS-136. IS-136 was replaced by most operators with GSM. GSM had been running for some time on US PCS frequencies. In addition to this, some NMT-450 analog networks have been replaced with digital networks using the same frequency. Local carries got licenses for 450 MHz frequency to offer CDMA mobile coverage areas in Russia and other countries.
GSM phones support three bands or four bands. They are referred to as tri-band and quad-band phones or world phones. The portability is not extensive as compared to IS-95; however, IS-95 networks do not exist in most of Europe.